Evaluation of low-dose proton beam radiation efficiency in MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line vitality and H2AX formation.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of proton beam irradiation in pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2 and its role in the cell cycle, apoptosis, and formation of histone γH2AX in different reparation times (72-h follow-up).
The MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cell line was irradiated with 1.6-Gy proton beam. After irradiation, cell viability was measured colorimetrically, and the cell cycle, apoptosis, and γH2AX expression were evaluated on a FACScan cytometer.
Low-dose proton beam irradiation had an effect on the MIA PaCa-2 tumor cell line already 1h after exposure, but maximal lethality was reached after 72h postirradiation with a cell viability rate of 24%. The cell cycle went into partial G1/0 arrest, and was released after 72h. The expression of γH2AX was strong and its levels were significantly elevated as late as 48h post radiation. The apoptosis levels increased with post radiation incubation time to reach 79% after 72h.
Our data demonstrate that low-doses proton beam irradiation had an effect on MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cell line. Full extent of irradiation had an impact only 24h postirradiation, triggering DNA arrested cell cycle in G1/0 phase. Formed DNA DSBs were found to be repaired via the NHEJ pathway mechanism within 72h. Unsuccessful repaired DSBs induced apoptotic cell death. After 72h reparation processes were completed, and cell cycle was released from arrest in G1/0 phase.
Correspondence to V. Pašukonienė Laboratory of Immunology, National Cancer Institute, Vilnius, Lithuania. Electronic address: email@example.com
Received 30 April 2014, accepted 13 October 2015, available online 6 November 2015.