Medicina (Kaunas) 2007; 43 (11): 843-849
Importance of repeat laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy for detection of prostate cancer in high-risk patients
Kęstutis Vaičiūnas, Stasys Auškalnis, Aivaras Matjošaitis, Antanas Mickevičius1, Ramūnas Mickevičius, Darius Trumbeckas, Mindaugas Jievaltas
Department of Urology, 1Department of Surgery, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
Key words: repeat laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy; prostate cancer.
Summary. Our purpose was to evaluate the relevance of repeat laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy for detection of prostate cancer in high-risk patients.
Material and methods. Our study included 195 men at high risk for prostate cancer (elevated prostate-specific antigen level and/or abnormal prostate detected by digital rectal examination). We consulted the patients in outpatient department of Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital during 20032007. We performed transrectal ultrasound-guided laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy in every patient. For the patients with benign histological findings and increased risk of prostate cancer, laterally directed sextant biopsies were repeated.
Results. Prostate cancer was detected in 30.3% of patients (59/195) on the first prostate biopsy, in 13.1% (11/84) on the second prostate biopsy, in 10.3% (4/39) on the third, and in 7.7% (1/13) on the forth biopsy. After all biopsies, prostate cancer was detected in 38.5% (75/195) of patients, and it differed significantly from the percentage of prostate cancer cases detected on the first biopsy (30.3%, P=0.04).
We detected 78.7% (59/75) of all prostate cancer cases by the first laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy. The rest 21.3% (16/75) of cases we detected by repeat biopsies. The second laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy revealed additional 14.6% (n=11) of prostate cancer cases and increased the detection of prostate cancer to 93.3% (70/75).
At the time of the first prostate biopsy, prostate cancer was diagnosed most frequently when patients had both risk factors: elevated prostate-specific antigen level and abnormal digital prostate examination; prostate cancer was diagnosed in 45.3% of these patients. The odds ratio to detect prostate cancer by the first biopsy in patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen level and abnormal digital prostate examination was 3.7, and odds ratio to detect prostate cancer by repeat biopsies was 4.7.
Conclusions. Repeat ultrasound-guided laterally directed sextant prostate biopsies reveal more cases of prostate cancer as compared to the first prostate biopsy. The majority of prostate cancer cases (93.3%) are detected by the first and second laterally directed sextant prostate biopsies. After the first negative prostate biopsy, we recommend to repeat prostate biopsy in high-risk patients.
Correspondence to K. Vaičiūnas, Department of Urology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Eivenių 2, 50009 Kaunas, Lithuania. E-mail: email@example.com
Received 27 September 2007, accepted 12 November 2007